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Fundamentals of Information and Communication Technology
Arithmetic and Logic : A part of the computer that performs arithmetic operations, Unit (ALU) Logic operations, and related operations.
Assembly Language : A computer oriented language whose instructions are usually in one-to-one correspondence with computer instructions and that may provide machine language output
in terms of ‘0’ and ‘1’.
Associative Memory : A memory whose storage locations are identified by their contents, or by a part of their contents, rather than by their names or positions.
Cache Memory : A special buffer storage, smaller and faster than main storage, that is used to hold a copy of instructions and data in main storage that are likely to be needed next by the
processor and that have been obtained automatically from main storage.
CD ROM : Compact Disk Read Only Memory. A non-erasable disk used for storing computer data. The standard system uses 12-cm disks and can hold more than 500 Mbytes.
Instruction Set : A complete set of the operators of the instructions of a computer together with the description of the types of meanings that can be attributed to their operands. Synonymous with machine instruction.
Input Devices : A device by which data can be entered into a computer system.
Output Devices : A device used for transferring data from internal storage of a computer to an external device or user.
Input-Output (I/O) : Pertaining to either input or output, or both. Refers to the movement of data between a computer and a directly attached peripheral.
Information Technology : The acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a micro-electronics based combination of computing and telecommunication.
Storage Device : In computing, a unit into which data can be entered, retained and later retrieved.
Buttons : A button is a kind of icon which is stimulated on-screen and is activated by a mouse or other pointing devices to execute a command.
Clicking : Clicking refers to pointing an item on the screen and then pressing and releasing mouse button.
Desktop : Windows desktop is the basic windows working area. As the system is started, the first thing one can see is the desktop, the area on the screen where one works. The following components appear immediately on the desktop.
Dialog box : A dialog box is a box that appears on the screen and displays an option among the alternatives, for example ‘Y’ for yes and ‘N’ for no or typing the name of a file.
Dragging : Dragging refers to holding down the left mouse button while sliding the mouse to a new position on the screen, and then releasing the button.
Icons : An icon is a small picture or graphical display used to represent a command, a program or a task. It has to be activated by a mouse or other pointing devices. In the figure, the desktop contains different icons.
Internet Explorer : It enables user to connect the Internet.
Microsoft Outlook : It is a component of Internet Explorer that integrates an e-mail Express and newsgroup services. It has the address book to store and retrieve e-mail addresses.

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