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Information Communication technology – applications
Bibliographic Database : A collection of bibliographic records in a machine-readable form.
Typical databases include surrogates (i.e. author’s name, title, abstract, etc) of library holdings or published journal articles.
Bibliographic Record : A collection of bibliographic data fields treated as one logical entity
that describes a specific bibliographic item.
Database : Refers generally a machine-readable file of records but may be used more specifically to refer a shared collection of structured data managed by a set of special software.
Database  Management System : The software used to manipulate and access data stored in database. A DBMS is generally designed to provide facilities for the maintenance of and access to structured data. The characteristics of data can be clearly defined with the help of a DBMS.
Field : Collection of data elements that together make up a unit of information. A field contains data elements such as the name of the author, title of the document, imprint, etc.
File : An organised collection of information and may consist of a set of logical records. It may be a named collection of computer records, usually with common attributes. A file may be stored and recalled as one unit by name.
Format : Structuring of fields in a record.
MARC Format : A bibliographic record format that has been devised for the MARC
Record : A collection of fields that form a logically related and discrete unit of information. For example, information regarding a library user constitutes a personal record.
Cache Memory : A high speed temporary storage in the CPU for storing parts of a
program or data during processing.
Binary Search : A search technique for sorted data.
B-tree : An indexed data storage method that is efficient for a wide range of data access tasks.
B+-tree : A variation on the B-tree structure that provides sequential access to the data as well as fast-indexed access.
Hashing : An access mechanism that transforms the search key into a storage address,thereby providing very fast access to stored data.
Index : A sorted list of key values from the original table along with a pointer to the rest of the data in each row.
Pointer : A logical or physical address of a piece of data .
RAID : Redundant Array of Independent Disks. A disk drive system that consists of multiple drives with independent controllers. The goal is to split the data to provide faster access and automatic duplication for error recovery.
Sequential Access : Access that takes records in order, looking at the first, then the next, and so on.
Access Method : The method used to store, find and retrieve the data from a database.
Artificial Intelligence : A branch of computer science that is attempting to develop systems to emulate human-like qualities such as learning, reasoning, communicating, seeing and hearing.
Data Independence : Separates the data from the program, which often enables data definition to be changed without altering the program.
Data Integrity : Keeping accurate data which means few errors and the data reflect the true state of a database.
Dependency : A dependency refers to relationship amongst attributes belonging to the relation or different relations.
E-R Diagram : Entity-Relationship Diagram. A diagram that shows associations (relationships) between entities.
Expert System : A system with a knowledge base consisting of data and rules that enables users to make decisions as effectively as an expert.
Foreign Key : A column in one table that is primary key in a second table. It does not need to be a key in the first table.
Knowledge Base : A knowledge base is an expert system’s database of knowledge about a particular subject. This includes relevant facts, rules and procedures for solving problems. The basic unit of knowledge is expressed as an IF-THEN- ELSE rule.
Normalisation : The process of creating a well-behaved set of tables to efficiently store data, minimize redundancy and ensure data integrity.
Primary Key : A column or a set of columns that identify a particular row in a table.
Relation : A relation is a table.
Relationship : An association between two or more entities.
Schema : An overall conceptual or logical view of the relationships between the data in a database.
Subschema : A subset or transformation of the logical view of the database schema that is required by a particular user application program.
Transparent : In computing, it pertains to a process or procedure involving a user without the later being aware of its existence.
Boolean Operators : A system of three symbolic logical operators to combine search terms to constitute a search statement, representing ‘logical sum’ (+) (OR), ‘logical product’ (x) (AND) and ‘logical difference’ (-) (NOT)
Data : Raw numbers or letters stored in a computer which represent facts about entities
Database : An organised collection of data that exists for the purpose of providing information
Descriptor : A word / term taken from a controlled vocabulary – usually a thesaurus – and assigned to a text to represent, partially or fully, the ‘aboutness’ of the text (see also Keyword)
Field-Specific search : A search facility that allows the searcher to specify the field (e.g. Title field) in which a search term should be present

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